Spinal infections can be classified by the location involved whether it's
the verterbral column, intervertebral disc space, the spinal canal, or
the adjacent soft tissues. Infection may be caused by bacteria or fungal
organisms and may occur after surgery or spontaneously in patients with
certain prevalent risk factors. Most postoperative infections occur between
three days and three months after
Causes & Risk Factors
Risk factors for spontaneous infections include poor nutrition, intravenous
drug use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, diabetes, obesity,
long term use of steroids as well as advanced age.
Surgical risk factors include operations of long duration, high blood loss,
instrumentation and multiple operations at the same site. Infections occur
in 1 to 4 percent of surgical cases, despite numerous preventative measures
that are adhered to.
Symptoms of a spinal infection will vary depending on the type and location
of the spinal infection however they may include:
- Neck stiffness
- Severe back pain
- Local tenderness in the spinal column
- Nerve root pain radiating from the infected area
- Weakness of voluntary muscles
- Bowel/bladder dysfunction
- Possible paralysis
In addition, postoperative infections may include the following symptoms:
- Wound redness & tenderness (if from surgery)
- Wound drainage (if from surgery)
Diagnosis of a spinal infection may take a month or as long as six months
depending on the type of infection and location. Unfortunately many patients
do not seek medical attention until their symptoms are severe or debilitating.
A combination of lab tests, x-rays, MRIs, and CT scans may be needed in
order to identify the location and extent of the infection. Cultures may
also be necessary in order to determine the type of bacteria or fungus
causing the infection.